A group of conditions associated with a person's elevated or decreased mood, such as depression or bipolar disorder. Your doctor may diagnose major depression if you have five or more of these symptoms most days for 2 weeks or more. At least one of the symptoms should be a depressed mood or loss of interest in activities. If you have depression that lasts 2 years or more, it's called persistent depressive disorder.
This term is used to describe two conditions formerly known as dysthymia (persistent low-grade depression) and chronic major depression. A person with bipolar disorder, which is also sometimes called manic depression, has mood episodes that range from high-energy extremes with a high mood to low depressive periods. When you're in the low phase, you'll have symptoms of major depression. Traditional antidepressants are not always recommended as first-line treatments for bipolar depression because there is no evidence that these drugs are more useful than a placebo (a sugar pill) for treating depression in people with bipolar disorder.
In addition, for a small percentage of people with bipolar disorder, some traditional antidepressants may increase the risk of causing a high phase of the disease or speed up the frequency of having more episodes over time. Seasonal affective disorder is a period of major depression that occurs most often during the winter months, when days get shorter and you get less and less sunlight. It usually disappears in spring and summer. A combination of antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs can treat psychotic depression.
ECT can also be an option. Women who have major depression in the weeks and months after childbirth may have peripartum depression. About 1 in 10 men also experience depression in the peripartum period. Antidepressant medications may help in a similar way to treating major depression that is not related to childbirth.
Major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder are two of the most common types of depression people experience, however, there are many types of depression. Most mood disorders have major depressive episodes in common. This is also true for bipolar disorder, another type of mood disorder. Dysthymia (persistent depressive disorder) is a type of mild and long-lasting depression.
People suffering from dysthymia experience symptoms that are less severe than those experienced by patients with MDD. Because the symptoms of dysthymia last so long and may not have a major impact on your life, you may not even realize you have the condition. Bipolar disorder is a type of depression in which a patient oscillates between periods of abnormally elevated mood (mania) and depressive episodes. Since bipolar disorder includes periods of mania as well as depression, treatment is different from MDD, which does not include mania.
This helps prevent the intense ups and downs associated with bipolar disorder. Talk therapy can also help you recognize what triggers mania and depression and help you better manage your symptoms. Medicines may not work for some people with psychotic depression. Therefore transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is sometimes recommended.
EMT treatment stimulates prefrontal cortex cells with electromagnetic pulses. Postpartum Depression Affects Some Mothers After Childbirth. You may have heard it called “postpartum melancholy,” although it is more serious than sadness. Not only is depression difficult to endure, it is also a risk factor for heart disease and dementia.
Depressive symptoms can occur in adults for many reasons. If you experience cognitive or mood changes that last more than a few weeks, it's a good idea to contact your doctor or see a mental health specialist to help determine possible causes, says Dr. Nancy Donovan, Psychiatry Instructor at Harvard Medical School. The classic type of depression, major depression, is a state in which a dark mood consumes everything and you lose interest in activities, even those that are usually pleasurable.
Symptoms of this type of depression include difficulty sleeping, changes in appetite or weight, loss of energy, and feeling worthless. Thoughts of death or suicide may occur. It is usually treated with psychotherapy and medication. For some people with severe depression that is not relieved by psychotherapy or antidepressant medications, electroconvulsive therapy may be effective.
Formerly called dysthymia, this type of depression refers to low mood that has lasted at least two years but may not reach the intensity of major depression. Many people with this type of depression can function day by day, but they feel depressed or joyless most of the time. Other depressive symptoms may include changes in appetite and sleep, lack of energy, low self-esteem or hopelessness. People with major depression experience symptoms most of the day, every day.
These symptoms can last for weeks or even months. Some people may have a single episode of major depression, while others experience it throughout their lives. Regardless of how long symptoms last, major depression can cause problems with your relationships and daily activities. Persistent depressive disorder is depression that lasts 2 years or more.
People may also refer to this as dysthymia or chronic depression. Persistent depression may not feel as intense as major depression, but it can still strain relationships and make daily tasks difficult. Persistent depression lasts for years in a row, so people with this type of depression may begin to feel that their symptoms are only part of their normal view of life. Manic depression involves periods of mania or hypomania, in which you feel very happy.
These periods alternate with episodes of depression. Manic depression is an outdated name for bipolar disorder. Hypomania is a less serious form of mania. Some people with major depression may experience periods of psychosis.
This may involve hallucinations and delusions. Medical professionals refer to this as major depressive disorder with psychotic characteristics. However, some providers still refer to this phenomenon as depressive psychosis or psychotic depression. Similar to perinatal depression, PMDD may be related to hormonal changes.
Your symptoms often start right after ovulation and begin to subside once you have your period. Situational depression, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood, resembles major depression in many ways. While women are at higher risk for general depression, they are also at risk for two different types of depression that are influenced by reproductive hormones, perinatal depression and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Based on these symptoms, you may be diagnosed with atypical depression (the current terminology refers to this as depressive disorder with atypical characteristics), a type of depression that does not follow what was thought to be the typical presentation of the disorder.
Unlike other forms of depression, people with atypical depression may respond better to a type of antidepressant known as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). Based on these symptoms, you may be diagnosed with atypical depression (the current terminology refers to this as depressive disorder with atypical characteristics), a type of depression that does not follow what was thought to be the “typical presentation of the disorder.”. Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder, refers to a type of chronic depression present for more days than not for at least two years. It is important to know the different types of depression and the form of depression you suffer from, so that you can find the right treatment option for you.
Understanding how types differ in terms of their causes and symptoms is a crucial first step in finding effective treatment. Medications for bipolar disorder are different from those given for other types of depression, but they can be very effective in stabilizing a person's mood. Your portrait of depression is unique to you, but it is likely to fall under the umbrella of one of these types of depression. Sometimes, they may also recommend an older type of antidepressant called MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitor), which is a class of antidepressants that has been well studied to treat atypical depression.